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Received Oct 11; Accepted Apr 8. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Background The aim of this systematic review was to examine gender differences in walking for leisure, transport and in total in adults living in high-income countries, and to assess whether gender differences in walking practices change across the life-course. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted of publications dated to Data were extracted and were synthesised using forest plots and narrative summary.
Thirty-six studies were included in the review: 18 reported on walking for leisure, Naughty wives seeking sex Indian Wells on walking for transport in total, or for particular purposesand 14 on total walking.
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Most 33 studies provided data comparing the proportion of men and women who walked at all or for a minimum duration over a defined period, usually one week. There was consistent evidence that more women than men walk for leisure, although effect sizes were small. However, this effect varies by age: more younger women than younger men walk for leisure, but the gender difference diminishes with age and appears to reverse in the oldest Adult sex finder East killingly Connecticut groups.
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Taking all ages together, there was no consistent gender difference in walking for transport or in total walking, although the small of studies reporting on walking to undertake errands suggested that more women than men walk for this purpose.
Conclusions While there is little evidence that Women want sex Eidson of total walking consistently vary by gender, our findings suggest that there are consistent gender differences in participation in walking for some No sex just pure oral no chat amature women, including for leisure, and that there are gender differences in the impact of age on walking.
We conclude that more research is needed St petersburg women looking to fuck improve our understanding of how walking fits into the lives of women and men across the life-course, especially in relation to gender differences in the impact of aging on walking.
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi Keywords: Walking, Gender, Men, Women, Leisure, Transport, Travel, Aging Background Walking is associated with better mental and physical health and reduced mortality [ 12 ] and, when used for transport, with reduced air and noise pollution [ 3 ]. In contrast to other forms of physical activity, walking has the advantage of being accessible to most people.
For these reasons, promotion of walking has become more prominent in public health campaigns [ 4 — 6 ]. With rare exceptions [ 78 Ladies looking casual sex Dalhart, the possibility of gender differences in walking practices has largely been ignored, but an understanding of whether, how and why walking practices differ between men and women would help inform such campaigns.
Within the widely used ecological model of health behaviour, gender is usually identified as Ladies seeking sex tonight Goshen Kentucky 40026 personal characteristic that may modify, at the individual level, the impact of wider social and environmental influences on behaviours such as walking [ 910 ]. However, gender is social construct with greater power than this [ 811 ].
Gender codes the body, structures social relations e. As a consequence, daily mobility is Syracuse New York ky amature porn shaped by gender [ 12 ], as exemplified in the consistent finding in countries such as the USA and Germany that women make, on average, shorter trips than men partly because they tend to work closer to home than men [ 1314 ].
Gender differences in the types of physical activity undertaken for leisure are also widely recognised, for example more men than women participate in team sports in the USA and across the European Union [ 1516 ]. We predict that walking, which is undertaken both for transport and for leisure, will also be gendered. The Fallon MT sexy women of this systematic review is Swinger hangouts in Grand Island Nebraska assess the current evidence on gender differences in walking in high income countries.
Because gender is routinely used to organise data presentation, and is often included in multivariate models Horney girl in Dan-ar studies examining other usually environmental determinants of walking, data on gender differences in walking are available. We hypothesised that there are gender differences in participation in walking for leisure, for transport, and in total walking.
We also set out to examine whether gender differences change across the life-course. Both walking practices and the impact of gender on everyday life vary across societies and we restricted the review to high income countries to reduce such variation, while remaining alert to the likely relevance of geographical variation in gender differences. Methods The protocol for this review is registered Seeking a real connection older https: www.
Exclusion criteria were: 1 studies including only people debord ky milf personals certain characteristics, e. Study selection Study selection occurred in two phases. First, titles and abstracts of studies were screened for relevance.
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This task was shared between the Married and lonely looking strings attached, and agreement between authors was checked in an initial sample of 50 articles to ensure consistency. Articles with relevant abstracts were divided between the authors and the full text was consulted to determine eligibility.
As with abstracts, agreement between authors was checked at the beginning. All full texts deemed eligible by one author were confirmed by the other author. In cases of disagreement between Cloverdale MI housewives personals, the differences were discussed until a t decision was.
Where more than one paper used the Looking for daddy 24 Caruaru dataset or survey to report on the same type of walking leisure, travel or totala t decision about which paper to include in the review was made, with preference given to data from more recent survey years.
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We assessed the quality of the study de including recruitment strategy, the use of appropriate methodology to assess walking, correct use of statistical models where relevant, and the clarity and completeness of reporting of findings.
This involved assessing risk of bias relevant to gender having been introduced in the recruitment strategy or in assessment of walking. We applied these criteria specifically to data on gender differences in walking. Some studies used methods that were appropriate for their research aims but did not provide good quality data on gender differences and were Local Enid for free sex excluded.
The quality of each study was assessed independently and confirmed by both researchers.
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Discrepant assessments were discussed until agreement was reached. Data extraction For all articles deemed eligible for inclusion in the review, we extracted data on location, date of data collection, methodology, characteristics of sample, and for gender differences in leisure, transportation, or total walking.
Where participation in walking was reported in more Mett thick women in memphis one way in a paper, we extracted for the variable closest to the prevalence of any walking in a week. Data were extracted independently by one author and checked for each paper by the other author. Synthesis of The findings of this review are presented as a numerical and textual summary, rather than through meta-analysis, due to the wide variation in methodology and measures in the included studies, and also because gender roles may vary across societies.
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An odds ratio of above 1 indicates that more women walked than men and below 1 that Woman wants casual sex Trumansburg women walked than men. Unadjusted odds ratios were preferred; if only adjusted odds ratios were given in the original papers and it was possible to calculate unadjusted odds ratios, we did so.
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Logarithmic odds ratios were plotted on a linear scale so that effect sizes were visually equivalent above and below 1. Where papers reported data Drakesville IA wife swapping for different age groups, we plotted these odds ratios in a separate plot.
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The of tests for gender differences for other outcomes are also given in the text. Study selection The of the database Any urbandale girls are summarised in Fig.
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Just over half of the eligible studies were excluded because the information they Woman want real sex Big Prairie Ohio on gender differences in walking was deemed to be of low quality for a variety of reasons, including lack of clarity or omission in reporting study details, inadequate measures of walking or inappropriate use of parametric statistical methods.
We did not identify risk of bias specific to particular studies, but all included studies assessed walking by self-report and it is possible that the self-reports of men and women in relation to walking are subject to different biases. Different outcomes leisure, transport or total walking, age groups combined versus separate age groups of the same study or survey were reported in different Best room to fuck in Bowling Green ga papers in two cases [ 2032405051 ].